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Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals

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En omfattende gjennomgang av anti-predator forsvarsstrategier og -adferd hos fugler og pattedyr.
Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals
Forlag/produsentChicago U P
ForfatterCaro, T.
Antall sider592s
Fotos - illustrasjoner130 strektegn, 15 halvtone, 90 tab

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Forlagets presentasjon
In nature, the ability to defend against predators is fundamental to an animal's survival. From the giraffes that rely on their spotted coats to blend into the patchy light of their woodland habitats to the South American sea lions that pile themselves in heaps to ward off the killer whales that prey on them in the shallow surf, defense strategies in the animal kingdom are seemingly innumerable.

In Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals, Tim Caro ambitiously synthesizes predator defenses in birds and mammals and integrates all functional and evolutionary perspectives on antipredator defenses that have developed over the last century. Structured chronologically along a hypothetical sequence of predation--Caro evokes a gazelle fawn desperate to survive a cheetah attack to illustrate the continuum of the evolution of antipredator defenses--Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals considers the defenses that prey use to avoid detection by predators; the benefits of living in groups; morphological and behavioral defenses in individuals and groups; and, finally, flight and adaptations of last resort.

Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals will be of interest to both specialists and general readers interested in ecological issues.


Preface, scope, and acknowledgments

1 Definitions and predator recognition
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The predatory sequence
1.3 Definitions
1.3.a Adaptation and evolution
1.3.b Antipredator terminology
1.4 Ability of prey to recognize predators
1.5 Recognition by young animals
1.5.a Innate recognition
1.5.b Learning to recognize predators
1.6 Relaxed selection
1.7 Observer bias
1.8 Summary

2 Morphological traits to avoid detection
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Background matching
2.2.a Color resemblance in mammals
2.2.b Color resemblance in birds
2.2.c Color resemblance in birds' eggs
2.2.d Special resemblance in birds' nests
2.2.e Melanism
2.2.f Changes in coloration with changing environments
2.2.g Masquerade
2.3 Concealing shadow
2.4 Disruptive coloration
2.5 Apostatic selection
2.6 Summary

3 Behavioral mechanisms to avoid detection
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Nest site selection in birds
3.2.a Habitat type
3.2.b Distance from edges
3.2.c Habitat patch size
3.2.d Vegetation around the nest site
3.2.e Nest height
3.2.f Proximity to nests
3.2.g Distribution of nests
3.2.h Proximity to social insects
3.3 Behavior reducing the probability of predators detecting nests
3.4 Refuges
3.4.a Physical structures
3.4.b Habitat shifts in rodents
3.4.c Habitat shifts in ungulates
3.5 Reduced activity
3.5.a Hiding in ungulates
3.6 Changes in foraging under risk of predation
3.6.a When to eat
3.6.b Where to eat
3.6.c What to eat
3.6.d How much to eat
3.6.e Effects of age and reproductive condition on risk-sensitive foraging
3.7 Changes in reproduction under risk of predation
3.8 Summary

4 Vigilance and group size
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Measures of vigilance
4.3 Benefits of individual vigilance
4.4 Costs of individual vigilance
4.5 Effects of group size on vigilance
4.5.a Increased probability of predator detection
4.5.b Reduced individual vigilance
4.5.c Increased foraging
4.6 Why don't individuals cheat?
4.6.a Predator detection is not collective
4.6.b Vigilant nondetectors are at an advantage
4.6.c Predators select low-vigilance individuals
4.6.d Individuals maintain vigilance so as not to lose group members
4.6.e Multiple attacks are possible
4.7 Vigilance in mixed-species groups
4.8 Summary

5 Factors affecting vigilance
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Distance from conspecifics and perceived group size
5.3 Position in the group
5.4 Sentinels
5.5 The influence of cover
5.6 Age and parity
5.7 Sex differences and dominance
5.8 Miscellaneous factors
5.9 Predator abundance
5.10 Interspecific differences in vigilance
5.11 Summary

6 Conspecific warning signals
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Acoustic constraints on alarm calls
6.2.a Localizability
6.2.b Detectability
6.3 Costs of warning signals
6.4 Benefits of warning signals
6.4.a Apparently selfish alarm calls
6.4.b Mutually beneficial alarm calls
6.4.c Altruistic and kin-selected alarm calls
6.5 Alarm calls between species
6.6 Variation in alarm calls
6.6.a Sciurids
6.6.b Birds
6.6.c Primates
6.7 Development of conspecific warning signals
6.7.a Ontogeny of response
6.7.b Ontogeny of alarm calls
6.8 Use of warning signals in deception
6.9 Summary

7 Signals of unprofitability
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The evolution of aposematism
7.2.a Individual selection
7.2.b Kin selection
7.2.c Synergistic selection
7.3 Mechanisms by which predators select prey
7.3.a Single prey
7.3.b Aggregated prey
7.4 Aposematism in birds
7.4.a Mimicry in birds
7.5 Aposematism in mammals
7.6 Pursuit deterrence
7.6.a Low-cost perception advertisement signals
7.6.b Auditory signals of perception advertisement
7.6.c Inspection as perception advertisement
7.6.d Foot drumming as advertising predator monitoring
7.6.e Stotting as perception and quality advertisement
7.6.f Leaping as quality advertisement
7.6.g Song as quality advertisement
7.6.h Quality advertisement in poikilotherms
7.7 Summary

8 Antipredator benefits of grouping
8.1 Introduction
8.1.a Definition of groups
8.2 The dilution effect
8.2.a Rates of encounter
8.2.b Reduced risk of capture
8.3 The Trafalgar effect
8.4 The confusion effect
8.4.a Oddity and confusion
8.5 Predator "swamping"
8.5.a Reproductive synchrony
8.6 Miscellaneous mechanisms
8.7 Position in the group
8.7.a Colonially nesting birds
8.7.b Flocks and herds
8.8 Primate groups
8.9 Ecocorrelates of antipredator grouping in homeotherms
8.10 Summary

9 Morphological and physiological defenses
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Body size
9.2.a Body size and locomotor performance
9.3 Forms of locomotion
9.4 Spines and quills
9.5 Dermal plates and thickened skin
9.6 Weapons used for feeding
9.7 Sexually selected weaponry
9.8 Malodor and unpalatability
9.9 Venom resistance
9.10 Life history characteristics
9.11 Summary

10 Nest defense
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Scope of nest defense activities
10.2.a The study of nest defense
10.3 Distraction displays
10.4 Costs of nest defense
10.5 Benefits of nest defense
10.5.a Driving predators away
10.5.b Silencing offspring
10.6 Effects of predation risk on nest defense
10.7 Parent's renesting potential
10.7.a Renesting potential within breeding seasons
10.7.b Renesting potential over lifetimes
10.8 Parental sex
10.9 Parental interactions
10.10 Offspring age
10.10.a Past and future parental investment
10.10.b Changes in offspring vulnerability
10.10.c Revisitation hypothesis
10.11 Offspring number
10.12 Offspring condition
10.12.a Harm-to-offspring hypothesis
10.13 Parental defense in mammals
10.14 Summary

11 Mobbing and group defense
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Definition of mobbing
11.3 Variation in mobbing behavior
11.4 Costs of mobbing
11.5 Benefits of mobbing
11.5.a Direct benefits: lethal counterattack
11.5.b Direct benefits: the move-on hypothesis
11.5.c Direct benefits: perception advertisement
11.5.d Direct benefits: selfish-herd effect and confusion effect
11.5.e Direct benefits: attract the mightier
11.5.f Indirect benefits: alerting others
11.5.g Indirect benefits: silencing offspring
11.5.h Benefits unclear: cultural transmission
11.5.i Other hypotheses
11.6 Mobbing and group size
11.7 Mobbing and mixed-species associations in birds
11.8 Group defense in mammals
11.8.a Snake-directed behavior in sciurids
11.8.b Protective behavior in ungulates
11.8.c Group attacks in primates
11.9 Summary

12 Flight and behaviors of last resort
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Freezing and immobility
12.3 Defense calls and flash coloration
12.4 Counterattack
12.5 Methods of escape
12.5.a Birds
12.5.b Mammals
12.6 Flight distance
12.7 Flight and weight gain in birds
12.8 Autotomy and deflection of attack
12.9 Fear screams
12.10 Death feigning
12.11 Summary

13 Framing questions about antipredator defenses
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Synergism between morphology and behavior
13.3 Defenses shown by different prey to different predators
13.4 Prey employ different defenses against different predators
13.5 Different prey use different defenses against the same predator
13.6 Prey summon several defenses against the same predator
13.6.a Repeated use of the same defense
13.6.b Different defenses
13.7 Predator-prey coevolution
13.8 Ten pressing questions
13.8.a How important is coloration in antipredator defense?
13.8.b How can we explain patterns of morphological and physiological defenses across taxa?
13.8.c How do antipredator morphology and behavior interact?
13.8.d Do prey recognize individual predators?
13.8.e How common are multifunctional defenses?
13.8.f How do predators respond to interactions with prey over time?
13.8.g How common are multiple attacks on grouped prey?
13.8.h Do predators select prey on the basis of condition?
13.8.i Do individual predators vary in hunting style?
13.8.j How do predator learning mechanisms affect antipredator defenses?
13.9 Why are defenses imperfect?
13.10 Summary

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